Dialects, accents, and superiority complexes

This is a direct response to Daniel Johnson’s article for GameSetWatch’s Lingua Franca column: Implications Of Dialect In Dragon Quest IV. I’d strongly recommend you read it before getting onto this, which serves mainly as a counter-point to some of his arguments. One major caveat here: I have not played Dragon Quest IV, nor am I likely ever to – it’s just not of a genre I have even the slightest interest in. My knowledge of the game’s script comes from screenshots and commentaries only. 

NB – throughout the article I describe the ‘voice’ of the NPC’s – all of the text in the game, to my knowledge, is unspoken; by voice, I refer to the way in which the text is written to give a distinct voice to the characters.

As stated, you really should read Johnson’s article first, but for ease of reference I provide a brief summary of Johnson’s piece, or at least the elements I’m going to discuss:

  • The dialogue of NPC’s in the recent remake of Dragon Quest IV is written in a voice unique to their country, based on accents frequently observed in Europe.
  • These accents indicate that each country has its own dialect; in support of this, the press release for the game makes clear that the game uses thirteen English dialects.
  • These dialects are hard to read, and not only make the game harder to follow, they take the player away from the experience.
  • As dialects away from core, ‘neutral’ dialects are sometimes seen as signs of being uneducated, then using, and therefore drawing attention to, such dialects within Dragon Quest IV can be construed as racist against the people of the countries/towns the dialects have been taken from.

First, some semantics.

Johnson’s argument, that “by using dialects as the main form of communication, it validates dialects within the language that the game operates… Dragon Quest IV is declaring that the English language does indeed have dialects“, is an interesting – and slightly odd – one. It’s worth noting here that Johnson studies language and culture, where I do not. I have studied the development of language, and various ancient cultures, through my degrees, but never the issue of modern dialects, so on such a matter I would normally defer to him. However, his professing that “as an Australian, I rarely think of English as a language with dialects, sure there are variations, but we rarely consider those variations significant enough to label distinctively as dialects” seemed surprisingly limited for a student of language.

Click for a fully interactive map of British dialects, as provided by the British Library.

Click for a fully interactive map of British dialects, as provided by the British Library.

I can understand that, as an Australian whose experience of English comes mostly from Australasia and North America, one might forget that the English language possesses numerous dialects – while the US, Canada, Australia and Canada have a few different terms in slang, their general vocabulary and grammar is the same. However, anyone who’s travelled the UK would swiftly note the presence of numerous dialects: such as Bristolian, Geordie and, most notably, Scots. As such, ‘validating’ dialects within the English language is a somewhat redundant practice (as a minor aside, both the press release for DQIV and Johnson seem to suggest that all the voices used in the game – including French and Russian – are dialects, which is patently false. Some of the voices used are dialects. Many of them are just accents).

As another aside, he talks about ‘Europeans’ understanding the ‘dialects’: I would have to narrow down that audience to British people – most Europeans don’t speak English as a first language. As such, recognition of accents by most Europeans would be even harder than for an Australian. However, as stated, all of the above is just semantics – nothing particularly integral to his arguments. Lets move onto those, shall wel?

First, let’s look at the issue that’s likely to be a foremost issue for most would-be players of DQIV: how the inclusion of heavily flavoured text will affect their ability to follow and enjoy the game. This is an issue that has cropped up in the past – just not usually in games. There are numerous books written with dialogue – and sometimes even narration – that is heavily accented. One of the most famous such works is Irvine Welsh’s Trainspotting. Set in Scotland, the book is written in extremely heavy Scots english – a true dialect, distinct from Scottish-accented English from its use of different grammatical forms to English. For someone familiar with the dialect, it can be difficult to follow the text due to the queerness of seeing it in written form. For someone unfamiliar with the dialect, it’s liable to be near-incomprehensible.

In case anyone was wondering.

In case anyone was wondering.†

And is this a barrier to entry? Yes. Trainspotting is not an easy book to read, at least not to begin with. It takes time for the reader to get used to reading something so distinctly voiced. Was this an error, a misjudgement on Welsh’s part? Not at all. Specifically intended to give voice to the Scotsmen it deals with, Welsh uses the device to ensure that the readers can hear the country – and yes, the class – of the people it represents.

However, Trainspotting is intended as commentary as well as entertainment – DQIV, less so. However, it’s fair to say that it also features language that, while flavoured, is not nearly as heavy as Welsh’s. Despite Johnson’s description of the opening as “almost uninterpretable“, the line in question:

His Majesty is aboot tae make an announcement tae youse all. Simmer doon an’ listen noo.

doesn’t even come close to being as heavy-handed or difficult to interpret as that in Trainspotting.

Trainspotting opens as it means to go on. Easy enough to decipher if you're British - less so for anyone else.

Trainspotting opens as it means to go on. Easy enough to decipher if you're British - less so for anyone else.††

Not to say that I don’t believe Johnson when he says he has difficulty following some of the text: as he notes, the translation was put together in Europe, and based on European accents – accents he, as an Australian, is less familiar with than a Brit might be. In this respect, his case is a fair one – the use of accents that are likely to be unfamiliar to non-locals, while generally not an issue in vocal recordings,* can be particularly problematic in written text. It is easy to see why DQIV might cause some difficulties.

That being said, the accents are not being thrown in willy-nilly: as Johnson states, the accents are used to distinguish the different (virtual) nationalities represented in the game. I don’t think there is a right answer here: losing the accents loses the flavour; keeping them makes it a more difficult game to get into. If anything, the ideal here would be to have two different versions of the game (much as we have multiple translations of literary works, catering for different tastes); which, in fact, we do have, thanks to the original NES version featuring a much straighter translation. So in this case, I have to side with the translators: there remains a prior version, albeit on a much older machine, which has a translation that is easier (if clunkier) to read.

However, this is not the main issue I wish to address. Rather I’m interested in his more serious accusation: that of casual racism.

One of the initial impressions I had while plodding through Dragon Quest IV‘s quest was that by using “exotic” English dialects and situating itself in a series of small-time, country villages, the game was poking fun at people from less fortunate backgrounds. That is, I assuredly feel that Dragon Quest IV could be interpreted as racist – or at least derogatory to those which accents/dialects.

I will agree with one thing: it could be interpreted as racist. This I can say for certain, because he appears to have (at least initially) thought exactly so. But why does he think this? 

Run for the hills boyos - the accents are coming for us! (also, apologies to IGN for stealing their screenshot)

Run for the hills boyos - the accents are coming for us! (also, apologies to IGN for stealing their screenshot)

Dialects and accents can certainly be used in a racist manner. This would be accomplished by bestowing certain (or all non-neutral) accents to characters in an offensive manner: by using them to correlate with certain (probably clichéd) characteristics (e.g. all French-accented characters are pretentious, all Scottish-accented characters are drunk), or worse, as a way of determining intelligence (i.e. all characters without a neutral accent are discernably less intelligent than those with one). However, at no point does Johnson suggest this. The only correlation he suggests, is that the dialects are associated with ‘small-time, country villages’ – hardly the most compelling of evidence.

Rather, his argument is that:

In western culture, dialects are often derogatorily viewed as strange divergences from the normally accepted English vernacular. They’re associated with people from lower socio-economic backgrounds… [therefore, by using dialects in the western release, the game] reduces the NPCs to a bunch of backwards-sounding, uneducated hicks.

Or, to put it another way: some people consider dialects a symbol of poverty and being uneducated – therefore, the usage of dialects in the game no matter the manner of their implementation marks the NPC’s as being backwards. Which seems to this observer at least, a completely absurd argument, and perhaps one which says more about the author of the piece than the game itself.

Racism. Coming to a DS near you.

Racism. Coming to a DS near you.

I may be wrong, of course – it is possible that the game does use accents and dialects in such a manner as to reaffirm such a belief that having a non-neutral accent is a sign of inferiority – but Johnson at no point makes such a claim, and without a copy of the game myself I am unable to consider it on any other merits than those he has himself picked up on – and I must say, I find his arguments uncompelling. 

In fact, I shall close with his final argument:

Ask yourself this question. Having read the above quote at the top of the article, what impression did it give you of the speaker? Probably not a very positive one, I suspect. It sounds uneducated and broken.

I asked myself that very question, and looked back at the quote he referred to: “His Majesty is aboot tae make an announcement tae youse all. Simmer doon an’ listen noo“. He’s right, it didn’t give me a positive impression. But neither did it give me a negative one. It sounded like a working class, northern accent (not sure if it’s meant to be Geordie or Scottish – I’d need to read more. The downside of written accents), and that was all. Perhaps Johnson thinks that to be a negative impression to give. If that’s the case, I would have to suggest that the problem lies with him, rather than the game.

 

*though strong accents can still cause problems – hence the dubbing (I shit you not) of Mad Max in America.

 

†2003, Collins English Dictionary: Complete and Unabridged; Collins. p.457

††1994, Irvine Welsh, Trainspotting; Vintage. p.3

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11 Responses to “Dialects, accents, and superiority complexes”


  1. 1 unwesen 18/05/2009 at 8:46 am

    Dialects have been used and abused in fantasy literature especially for a long time, and the problems surrounding that are no different than they are in video games – with the possible exception that video games are a newer phenomenon.

    The relative age makes a bit of difference, as these days people (in European countries at least, if I extrapolate from my own experiences and those of friends from other countries) grow up with far less exposure to heavy dialect as previously.

    There’s a good reason for that, in that dialects are a direct artifact of people *not* finding it easy to communicate with the rest of the world in real-time. Distinct speech patterns that may turn into a dialect develop because the points of reference (other people) a speaker has is relatively small and relatively fixed – which is the case where travel and communication beyond the village boundaries take significant effort.

    That’s not only going to be part of the reason Johnson thinks of English as mostly dialect-free, it’s also a good reason to include dialect in fantasy games. It just makes sense that people from different places would speak differently.

    Giving them “real-world” dialects is something of an odd choice, though certainly the easier one (the racial stereotyping of dwarves as speaking a scottish dialect has nearly become the norm, so why change it?). That sort of thing can have hilarious consequences… in one German-dubbed version of a Jackie Chan film, the pirates were speaking a northern dialect. While that’s clever (the coastline in Germany is to the north, and most sea-faring Germans would have spoken this dialect), it’s also hilariously weird, and I’m not sure whether that’s intentional.

    I would have thought it a better choice to give people from different locations different artificial speech patterns… but real-world dialects are certainly more sensible, and more colourful, than no dialects.

  2. 2 Yann 18/05/2009 at 10:39 am

    Your points re: the stereotyping of certain characters with accents is a good one – aside from the whole Scottish dwarves idea, your mentioning of pirates in a German context is an interesting one, as in English they have – thanks to Disney’s Treasure Island – long been associated with a strong West Country accent – particularly amusing for Brits, as the accent is more generally associated with farmers. as with the use of northern German, this also makes a degree of sense, due to a number of real-world pirates coming from the area, but hardly reflect the ‘real’ accent of piracy, which would of course be many and varied (and more archaic). At first it must have seemed just as odd to us, as the use of Northern German in said Jackie Chan film did to you, but as it became regularly used, it’s become accepted as the normal pirate accent.

    Also, your mentioning that “dialects are a direct artifact of people *not* finding it easy to communicate with the rest of the world in real-time. Distinct speech patterns that may turn into a dialect develop because the points of reference (other people) a speaker has is relatively small and relatively fixed – which is the case where travel and communication beyond the village boundaries take significant effort”: this was a point I wanted to bring up in defence of their usage in the game for “small-time, country villages”, but wasn’t confident enough (as stated, I’ve not studied dialects, or modern language, for anything other than my own pleasure, so I was worried that my hunch on that would be incorrect). Thank you for putting it in writing.

    Your discussion of dialect within a European context is also interesting: I was aware of there generally being less variety in most European languages, with German in fact being (to my knowledge) one of the more varied ones: though I don’t speak it myself, I have a good friend who is fluent in the language, and has told me of the distinct differences in tongue on moving from one part of Germany to another, never mind Schweizerdeutsch (I’m unaware how distinct Austrian German is). The irony seems to be that, while Johnson suggests that, to his mind, English seems a language missing dialects, it’s probably one of the languages with the most dialects around.

    Thank you for your post – it’s particularly enlightening to have a non-British European perspective – I am inferring from your username and website that you are yourself German, or at least deeply familiar with the language. My apologies if I’m making an incorrect assumption. Regardless of your perspective, it’s always a pleasure to receive well thought out, interesting comments such as yours.

  3. 3 unwesen 18/05/2009 at 11:05 am

    No, you’re absolutely correct, I am German – and I also live in the UK, which brings up the differences in culture and language once in a while.

    There is indeed a lot of variation in German dialects, to the point that linguists (I’m not one myself) distinguish different languages spoken within Germany. I’m lucky in that my father grew up speaking one of those languages and my mother another, so I understand most dialects fairly well.

    My mother is from Swabia, which is part of this group of languages/dialects:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alemannic_language

    My father is from Prussia, but grew up in Hamburg, where this group of languages/dialects is spoken (that’s not actually very precise, but let’s not complicate matters):
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Frisian_languages

    And I grew up near Cologne, where this group of dialects is spoken:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ripuarian_(language)

    As you can see, these languages have close relationships with languages of bordering countries. Part of the reason Germany has so many strong dialects, I think, is that prior to 1871 no such thing as Germany existed.

    But again, I’m not a linguist, nor am I a historian – I’m just somewhat interested in how language evolves.

  4. 4 Yann 18/05/2009 at 11:49 am

    Sounds like an interesting mesh of dialects! Language at the borders is always where the interesting stuff happens. I mean, look at Switzerland and Belgium.

    I’ve had a fair experience of varying speech; aside from simply being British, my background is a similar mish-mash: my mother’s French, my dad’s from Lincolnshire, and I was born and brought up in Wales. I also have an elder half-sister who’s Scottish. Thanks to the background I’m used to a range of British accents, and thanks to my mum and her family I can distinguish metropolitan French from the Occitan-influenced Southern French accents. I have difficulty discerning Belgian and Swiss dialects, though.

    Germany’s a hugely interesting country to study, historically and linguistically, for the reasons you give – the same as Italy, in fact. I have an excellent book on the development of European languages (including the non-Indo-European ones – hello Basque, and the Finno-Ugric languages), but unfortunately don’t have it to hand. If I could, I’d read from it now (I recall being surprised at the modern German language /not/ having roots in a certain language, but can’t remember for the life of me which it was), but instead I’ll just recommend it to you: it’s called “Words – The Evolution of Western Languages”, and it’s by Victor Stevenson. It’s interesting and well written – definitely worth a look if you’re at all interested in the development of languages.

  5. 5 unwesen 18/05/2009 at 12:04 pm

    That goes on my reading list, then 🙂 Thanks!

  6. 6 Daniel Primed 18/05/2009 at 4:26 pm

    Hey Yann,

    The article on Dragon Quest is taken from my own interpretations where I suggest possible divergences along the way. It is by no means definitive, just a single opinion that I use as a discussion point on the possible implications of dialects. As I said in the article, the English interpretation of the game is likely to be different from my Australian perspective as the ideology behind dialects and language systems also differs. I’m joyed to see some of the commentors like yourself further express disagreement towards my understanding of dialects, since it justifies my point that cases exist in cultures.

    For example, I find that the use of dialects in games do validate dialects in the respective language. This is significant and worth mentioning, since as I say in the article; Australian people don’t operate with these connotations. Unsure of this, I checked with 8 or so friends who agreed that yes, the concept of English dialects isn’t a part of our conscious thinking of the language. I’ve almost never heard anyone refer to English as having dialects ever. Ironically, while researching I discovered that there’s even a dialect for my local area too, yet nobody here thinks in such a way, so it just seems strange to us.

    I don’t think that it’s fair to say that my thinking is perhaps limited and then suggest that a person who had been to England would already be aware of this. Your more or less just excluded the understandings of the larger English speaking world.

    The fact that Westerners view dialect speaking communities as poor, backwards etc.(see below) and that the game is set in a series of remote areas that represent the stereotypes is plenty of reason to justify one’s perception of the game perhaps being racist.

    You then follow this up by putting words in my mouth, which contradict my later suggestions on the usage of dialects in games and all media.

    Also, my comments of the views of dialect in western culture is not based on what _some_ people think. Western cultures assume everyone is deep down just like them, hence when there are deviations such as people who speak poor English, respect different religions etc. we see it as a failure to conform; a threat. In contrast, in say Asian cultures, there is the general perception that people of other cultures are non-‘their culture’. It’s why I’ll always be regarded as an outsider in China, and furthermore the reason why Chinese people are so surprised when an “outsider” like me speaks their language. Yet, at the same time, I consider many of my mainland friends as being Aussie, just like me. So when someone doesn’t speak the “standard” English, we look down on them. I don’t like it either.

    Your answer to my question confirms the difference of opinion here. I naturally interpreted the text as bad English, you naturally weren’t as willing to. My perceptions on dialects I believe are in line with the beliefs of most Australians. You have a different understanding of the English language than what I do, and your response is very indicative of that. Hence you’ve tried to point me out as incorrect, perhaps even vilify me, when both our opinions are equally valid.

    Again, thanks for your interest in the article.

  7. 7 Yann 18/05/2009 at 4:59 pm

    Hey Daniel,

    I feel like I ought to write this in your comments thread, but I imagine that would just get horribly confusing. Also – I’m having to hammer this response out, as I’m hosting tonight, so need to have this written in twenty minutes. Apologies if this is sketchy because of that.

    First of all, I didn’t intend to vilify you – I may like long-form writing, but I will call a spade a spade. If I felt that you were being racist, I would have said so.

    I did think you were projecting a heightened-perspective of racism at the usage of dialects within the game, however – seeing racism in the use of dialects because you wanted to see it, and reading a Scottish accent as intended maliciously, to give a negative sense to the reader, due to your unfamiliarity with it.

    I also disagree with your general use of the term Western, here and in your initial post – while at times you speak from an overtly personal view (“as an Australian…”). at others you talk for Western culture in general. Indeed, you comment on my expecting a British perspective of things “more or less just excluded the understandings of the larger English speaking world”, which is fair enough – but then you speak as though you possess these understandings. And yet, you yourself are probably about as intimate with US and Canadian perspectives as I am with Australian ones, and you assume a lot in taking for granted that, if Australians do not consider themselves to speak in dialects, then neither would people in North America. Despite the fact that the US has some distinct dialects, such as Cajun English, and that Canada is a bilingual nation. Perhaps most don’t consider dialects a major issue either, but can you say that for certain?

    Moreover, though I didn’t go into this, I would have to say that most British people wouldn’t /consider/ English to possess numerous dialects – most consider different modes of speaking – be they Australian, Scots or Geordie – to be exactly as you say, ‘just accents’. They would recognise the same as being true of the pseudo-phonetic speech written into Dragon Quest IV – in no way would the average player consider the game to ‘validate dialects’, any more the J’eanne D’arc on the PSP did with its heavily accented French characters (‘oo spoke like zees).

    Also, you say that “Western cultures assume everyone is deep down just like them, hence when there are deviations such as people who speak poor English, respect different religions etc. we see it as a failure to conform; a threat”. I would say that statement applies to people in /general/, rather than Western society in general – people are always threatened by the ‘other’, be they foreign, a different race, a different sex. But actual Western /societies/ are wildly different. Some embody that thinking – for example, France’s integrationist policy is very much in line with it. Others, on the other hand, set themselves in opposition to it – Britain’s multi-culturalism.

    I suppose we’ll just have to agree to disagree on the setting of the game + dialectic use = racist setup.

    And I really have to leave this here – I have guests turning up shortly, and my room is a tip, not to mention I have to get food ready.

    Apologies if I seemed blunt or stubborn in this or my initial response – I just happen to hold strong feelings on this issue.

  8. 8 unwesen 18/05/2009 at 5:10 pm

    I’m going to stay firmly away from any debate over “right” or “wrong” in this. As such I’d like to focus only on a small part of your comment, Daniel – please don’t take that as me thinking the rest isn’t valid, I just don’t wish to comment on it.

    “The fact that Westerners view dialect speaking communities as poor, backwards etc.(see below) and that the game is set in a series of remote areas that represent the stereotypes is plenty of reason to justify one’s perception of the game perhaps being racist.”

    There’s a couple of things I find interesting here. One is that the game is a fantasy game, and fantasy as genre has often been accused of being inherently racist. I mean, it’s one thing that dwarves are meant to be greedy for gold, and nearly perpetually drunk, at least in some fantasy works. It’s quite another, though, to attribute “evilness” to whole races, most notably orcs.

    My argument here isn’t that perceiving a game as racist because it’s characters speak in dialect is invalid, though – I’m trying to say this form of racism is part of the genre, and generally accepted (whatever that says about those of us who read/play the genre). So pointing out that the use of language makes the game seem racist is an interesting observation, as far as I am concerned, because I never interpreted dialects in that way – on the other hand, it seems like a slightly redundant observation, given the much more blatant racism in the genre as a whole. I’m not sure if it makes sense to debate dialect as a means to evoke an impression of racism in isolation, therefore.

    As for the other interesting part of that snippet, i.e. “the fact that Westerners view dialect speaking communities as poor, backwards etc.”… well, I’m no native English speaker, but I do think that this is not so much a phenomenon in the UK. It used to be the case, for example, that television presenters had to speak “proper” Oxford English – but most popular television presenters these days speak with fairly strong dialects. Strong enough that when I moved here a year+ ago, I had trouble understanding them.

    That’s not an observation that invalidates what either of you say, really. But I can use my personal experience across other European countries to come to the conclusion that while there are stereotypes about people speaking particular dialects (Frysk speaking northern Germans are meant to be a bit dumb, for example), there’s rarely a negative opinion about dialects per se – though it is assumed that if you want to, you can speak without resotring to dialects. Given this personal experience, I find it highly interesting that Australians apparently do not think of their language as having dialects… and I’ll leave it at that. I know a few Aussies, but I’ve not spoken to them about their language much.

    Lastly, there’s a funny little anecdote from my own life, about stereotypes based on dialects: when I was meant to first go to school, the headmaster nearly refused me… based on the fact that I spoke the wrong dialect. He didn’t say that, though, he said I couldn’t speak German properly, and apparently was unable to realize that his version of German was steeped in the local dialect, and far from “proper” German itself.

  9. 9 Daniel Primed 19/05/2009 at 2:48 pm

    Yann

    You continue to disregard my point that the setting of the game heavily plays into the perception that one might infer of racism. As I said within the article, I don’t believe that DQIV is in anyway intentionally trying to be racist. In fact I stressed specifically that this game is innocent, and that these perceptions are negative consequences of the fact that games exists in cultures, hence use of dialects are interpreted differently…and people should consider this.

    My unfamiliarity with dialects (in English) is a natural result of living in a culture that doesn’t consider English to be a language of dialects – deal with it. The combination of scenery and dialect, among other things (character designs and the way the game plays into the culture of the town) had me concerned on the issue of racism, which is funnily enough a cultural implication of dialects in games; my discussion point.

    I think there is a lot of cross over with what I’ve said about Australians and westerners, and I was indeed sloppy over which one I refered to at any given time, but they’re both still applicable. Sure, the US has dialects of English and so does Australia. But as I mentioned, the fact that the area in which I live has a dialect and that people here don’t even think of such things as dialects, let alone our area having it’s own dialect are two different things. I used the connotations of the word and its thought processes as my point of the argument, not whether English actually has dialects.

    Again, I stand by my point on the validation of dialects. The game features this style of language, most don’t, it only familiarizes this sort of speaking to the player. By selecting this linguistic flavour, the game is making a statement that this kind of text exists, oh and here it is, in the game. How is this not validation?

    My key point on western cultures is more to do with the perception that others are ‘just like us’ rather than outsiders, which in turn creates a hierarchy within ‘standards’ and ‘norms’, hence we have a low opinion of irregular forms like dialects. The flipside to this is ‘them’ vs ‘us’. The Chinese don’t care if my Mandarin is good or bad, yet a westerner (assuming everyone can speak english) would (that is speaking english). Hence we have standards and derrogation towards the perceptibly weaker.

    Again, I am in no way saying that ‘setting of the game + dialectic use = racist setup’ definitively, this is an implication of games existing in cultures which creates differents interpretations, good or bad. If someone (as I did) percieves the game like this, there is no debate, this is what they saw and we ought to consider this when using dialects in games.

    unwesen

    I totally agree with the fact that possible racist undertones are a mark of the genre. I think my piece was taken more from the stance of the discipline, rather than in accordance with the genre itself (which is the way I’m trying to gear the content). Racism was only one part of my discussion on the whole of dialects, so it’s from a different angle.

    The rest of what you say is similar to other responses I’ve had from English folk. It’s interesting really that English people, with their different conceptulization of dialects have been the ones to pause and question what I’ve said. Yet to me, everything I said is 100% normal to the culture. It seems like they’re the strange ones, not me. ^_^


  1. 1 Hardcore Gamers Blog » Blog Archive » Microtransactions: More Mindless Razzing on Print Media and Complaints About Modernization Trackback on 05/06/2009 at 10:35 am
  2. 2 Daniel Primed:: Hobbyist Game Design Discussion » Microtransactions: More Mindless Razzing on Print Media and Complaints About Modernization Trackback on 10/03/2012 at 11:05 am

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